Directed energy: Phasers, Disruptors, High-energy Lasers, Proton beams, plasma waves, tetryon cannons - to name but a few.
Torpedoes: Nuclear (fission/fusion), photon (matter/antimatter), quantum (plasma based). Once again, I'm sure there are many more but that's all I can think of offhand.
Generally used are:
Beam types: Phasers, Disruptors, Polaron, Tetyron, Antiproton, Plasma, Retrofit Phaser & some hybrids.
Torpedoes: Photon, Quantum, Plasma, Tricobalt, Transphasic, Chroniton, Hargh'Peng (< A type of Klingon)