This was never, ever, mentioned in TOS, because in order to maintain even low Earth orbit a spacecraft has to travel 16000 miles per hour. Therefore there is no such thing as a parking brake on a starship. This is yet another stupid plot hole made by people who have not one shred of scientific skill. It is an inditement of the American educational system [note that this editor misspelled "indictment"! -Ed.] that people did not walk out of the movie laughing at the sheer stupidity. In other words, how insane would it be if ER showed an open heart surgery on a person's foot? Or what if Law and Order UK refered to the prisoner's 5th amendment rights?
That was never mentioned before, because in the original timeline that never happened. The only main character who could have been on the Enterprise when it was launched was Spock. Sulu was not seen on the Enterprise until the second pilot. (And then he was the head of the Physics department.)
In the novel 'Enterprise - the first adventure' Sulu is again brought aboard on short notice and similarly has not had enough time to study the controls of the ship. This section of the film was likely a nod to this novel saying that some things stayed the same - http://memory-beta.wikia.com/wiki/Enterprise:_The_First_Adventure
Also, it was a good thing that Sulu messed up, since if he hadn't, the Enterprise might have been destroyed along with all the other ships by the Narada.