Yes! Well, kinda. The Earth Federation has the MAACO's (future equivalent of marines) and the USF continues by, for instance, commiting ground units during the Dominion War (although whether they're called "Army" is unclear) to protect vital areas, up to and including year long rotations fighting Jem-Hadar nightly. It's implied on several occasions that "Starfleet ground troops" have been protecting planets during wartime. Most tellingly, it's also been stated more than once that Chief O'Brien was a "soldier" before joining Starfleet.
The Federation does not have a standing army